Wednesday 16 April 2014

Syncopation, Body-Movement and Pleasure in Groove Music

PLoS ONE 9(4): e94446
Published: April 16, 2014

Maria A. G. Witek [1], Eric F. Clarke [1], Mikkel Wallentin [2,3], Morten L. Kringelbach [2,4], Peter Vuust [2,5]

[1] Faculty of Music, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
[2] Center of Functionally Integrative Neuroscience, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, Denmark
[3] Center for Semiotics, University of Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark
[4] Department of Psychiatry, Warneford Hospital, University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom
[5] The Royal Academy of Music, Aarhus/Aalborg, Denmark


Moving to music is an essential human pleasure particularly related to musical groove. Structurally, music associated with groove is often characterised by rhythmic complexity in the form of syncopation, frequently observed in musical styles such as funk, hip-hop and electronic dance music. Structural complexity has been related to positive affect in music more broadly, but the function of syncopation in eliciting pleasure and body-movement in groove is unknown.

Here we report results from a web-based survey which investigated the relationship between syncopation and ratings of wanting to move and experienced pleasure. Participants heard funk drum-breaks with varying degrees of syncopation and audio entropy, and rated the extent to which the drum-breaks made them want to move and how much pleasure they experienced.

While entropy was found to be a poor predictor of wanting to move and pleasure, the results showed that medium degrees of syncopation elicited the most desire to move and the most pleasure, particularly for participants who enjoy dancing to music. Hence, there is an inverted U-shaped relationship between syncopation, body-movement and pleasure, and syncopation seems to be an important structural factor in embodied and affective responses to groove.

Copyright: © 2014 Witek et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Tuesday 1 April 2014

Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages

Food Microbiology
Volume 38, April 2014, Pages 303–311


Lactobacillus gasseri and Enterococcus faecalis were the main species in infant faeces.
• RAPD-PCR discriminated 60 profiles out of 109 LAB isolates.
• Six of 109 LAB isolated from infants were qualified as potential probiotics.
• Selected lactobacilli were assayed as starter cultures in model sausages.
• Three of the selected strains were effective meat starter cultures.


A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10^8 CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures.


Fermented sausages; Lactic acid bacteria; Lactobacillus; RAPD-PCR; Probiotics

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Wednesday 26 March 2014

Effect of Beer Marinades on Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Charcoal-Grilled Pork

J. Agric. Food Chem., 2014, 62 (12), pp 2638–2643
DOI: 10.1021/jf404966w
Published In Issue March 26, 2014

Olga Viegas †‡, Iria Yebra-Pimentel §, Elena Martínez-Carballo §, Jesus Simal-Gandara §, and Isabel M. P. L. V. O. Ferreira *†

† REQUIMTE, Laboratório de Bromatologia e Hidrologia, Departamento de Ciências Quı́micas, Faculdade de Farmácia, Universidade do Porto, 4051-401 Porto, Portugal
‡ Faculdade de Ciências da Nutrição e Alimentação da Universidade do Porto, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
§ Nutrition and Bromatology Group, Analytical and Food Chemistry Department, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, University of Vigo, 36310 Vigo, Spain


The effect of marinating meat with Pilsner beer, nonalcoholic Pilsner beer, and Black beer (coded respectively PB, P0B, and BB) on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in charcoal-grilled pork was evaluated and compared with the formation of these compounds in unmarinated meat. Antiradical activity of marinades (DPPH assay) was assayed. BB exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (68.0%), followed by P0B (36.5%) and PB (29.5%). Control and marinated meat samples contained the eight PAHs named PAH8 by the EFSA and classified as suitable indicators for carcinogenic potency of PAHs in food. BB showed the highest inhibitory effect in the formation of PAH8 (53%), followed by P0B (25%) and PB (13%). The inhibitory effect of beer marinades on PAH8 increased with the increase of their radical-scavenging activity. BB marinade was the most efficient on reduction of PAH formation, providing a proper mitigation strategy.


polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; meat; beer marinades; antiradical activity; food chemistry

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Wednesday 19 March 2014

Verification of the anatomy and newly discovered histology of the G-spot complex

BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology 2014;121
Early View (Online Version of Record published before inclusion in an issue)
Article first published online: 19 MAR 2014
DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.12707

A Ostrzenski [1], P Krajewski [2], P Ganjei-Azar [3], AJ Wasiutynski [4], MN Scheinberg [5], S Tarka [2] and M Fudalej [2]

1 Institute of Gynecology Inc., 7001 Central Avenue, St Petersburg, FL 33710, USA
2 The Department of Forensic Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
3 The Department of Pathology, University of Miami, FL, USA
4 The Department of Pathomorphology, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw, Poland
5 Center for Cosmetic & Reconstructive Gynecology, Deerfield Beach, FL, USA


To expand the anatomical investigations of the G-spot and to assess the G-spot's characteristic histological and immunohistochemical features.


An observational study.


International multicentre.


Eight consecutive fresh human female cadavers.


Anterior vaginal wall dissections were executed and G-spot microdissections were performed. All specimens were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E). The tissues of two women were selected at random for immunohistochemical staining.

Main outcome measures

The primary outcome measure was to document the anatomy of the G-spot. The secondary outcome measures were to identify the histology of the G-spot and to determine whether histological samples stained with H&E are sufficient to identify the G-spot.


The anatomical existence of the G-spot was identified in all women and was in a diagonal plane. In seven (87.5%) and one (12.5%) of the women the G-spot complex was found on the left or right side, respectively. The G-spot was intimately fused with vessels, creating a complex. A large tangled vein-like vascular structure resembled an arteriovenous malformation and there were a few smaller feeding arteries. A band-like structure protruded from the tail of the G-spot. The size of the G-spot varied. Histologically, the G-spot was determined as a neurovascular complex structure. The neural component contained abundant peripheral nerve bundles and a nerve ganglion. The vascular component comprised large vein-like vessels and smaller feeding arteries. Circular and longitudinal muscles covered the G-complex.


The anatomy of the G-spot complex was confirmed. The histology of the G-spot presents as neurovascular tissues with a nerve ganglion. H&E staining is sufficient for the identification of the G-spot complex.

This study was presented during the plenary session at the XX FIGO World Congress of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Rome, Italy, October 2012

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